Which factors Contribute to Force Production? (Part 1)



Research has shown that there might be 4 factors that contribute to muscle production:

1) Muscle Mechanics

2) Morphological factors

3) Neural Factors

4)Muscle Environment

I will try to go a little bit dipper to each one of them. On this part I will focus on Muscle Mechanics.

1) Muscle Mechanics

1.1 Force Velocity Relationship


For individual muscle fibers, muscle force and contraction velocity are inversekly related. When high levels of force are required, the contraction velocity is low. On th eother hand, when high velocities are required, the force produced is lower.

This can be explained in part due to the time for actin-myosin interaction, as well as all the inherent neuromuscular physiological mechanics to take place. Faster Contraction velocities shorten the time available, which will reduce the potential for the number of action and myosin crossbridges.

1.2 Length Tension Relationship


For individual muscle fibers, these appears to exist an optimal balance between the relative position of the sacromere and the force it can therefore produce. Greater than optiamal sacromere length (c) reduce the potential for force production, as well as shorter than optimal sacromere length (a). A morebalanced lengthenables an optimal number of actin-myosin crossbridges, allowing a greater potential for force production (b).

1.3 Type of Muscle Action


Daily  and sports action inlove almost exclusively some sort of Stretch Shortening Cycle (SSC). In other words, almost all actions have an eccentric portion, a transistion of isometric portion, and a concentric portion. When using a SSC, it enables greater force production through:

  • Greater time to produce force
  •  Storage and utilization of elastic energy
  • Interaction of contractile and elastic elements
  • Potentiation of contractile and elastic elements
  • Stretch reflexes

Why MMA fighters need to work on lateral and linear speed drills?

Here are some reasons why they should:

🔹they develop their kinesthetic ability which refers to a keen awareness for perceptible changes in body momentum, balance, position and stationary presence .
🔹they learn to move to all planes with efficiency and apply the same amount of forces to all of them .
🔹they get all these anaerobic alactic or lactic adaptations depending the duration of effort of the movement or the rest between repetitions which will help them during their sport specific training or a competition .
🔹it has been shown that working on speed outside of your sport, has better nervous system activation which leads to more motor unit recruitment and fast twich fibers


Why mobility is so important?

Mobility is about the control of the range of motion one has in an action/movement around a joint.Our bodies are plastic: we constantly adapt to what we do. This adaptation shows up when we learn new physical skills and build new body tissues. The principle applies to our brains and nervous system, too. We are “use it or lose it” organisms. Our design is so physically interconnected that what happens at one site cascades to others. This cascade is often why movement specialists will say “the site of pain is not always the source of pain.” As use-it-or-lose-it organisms, we get the body we practice having. On the plus side, this means that better practice = better body. By practicing joint mobility with intent, we re-educate and rehabilitate our movement towards a healthier ROM.

Which are the benefits of mobility training?

1) Proprioception/Sensory motor benefits

Beyond the physiological benefits of moving joints through their ROM, joint work helps us neurologically: joints are key triggers for sensory-motor perception. We experience the world in a sensory-motor hierarchy of visual (vision), vestibular (balance) and proprioceptive (where we are in space) systems. Joints have a very high number of proprioceptive nerves that tell the brain where we are in space and how fast each part of us is moving.

2)Reducing injury

Studies have shown that mobility work as part of balance and resistance training in athletes/persons was found to have a profound effect on reducing the possibilities of injuries.

3)Jammed joints and reduced strength

The nervous system is designed for survival first, not performance. If the nervous system detects a problem in its function – like a joint that is not able to move properly – it more or less cuts down power to the rest of the system (so the compromised component doesn’t put the system at risk). This shutdown is global. Conversely, opening up the jammed joint can bring the power back on line. This phenomenon was first noted decades ago and labelled the “arthrokinetic reflex.”

4)Proprioception & pain

Pain is part of neurological signalling triggered by another proprioceptive nerve, the nociceptor.

Typically, there are more mechanoreceptors (nerves that sense touch, movement, and position) around joints than nociceptors. Mechcanoreceptive nerves send their signals several hundred times faster than most nociceptors. This means that proper joint movement can send a far stronger signal, faster, to the body than a pain signal can.

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